MINGA - Munich's automated local transport with ridepooling, solo bus, and bus platoons

Project Description

The following topics are dealt with in the MINGA project:

  • Further development and optimization of local public transport through automation and digital networking.
  • Establish a ridepooling system with 3 to 5 automated vehicles in on-demand (OD) operation and scheduled operation of an automated solo bus and two bus platoons in Munich.
  • Simulative scaling of autonomous transport for the district of Munich.
  • Analysis of the environmental impacts of autonomous and connected vehicles in public transport.
  • Accessible, reliable systems that help reduce accidents and disruptions.
  • Analysis and, if necessary, supplementary proposals for the legal framework conditions
  • Use of AI methods and machine learning for the simulation and optimization of automated public transport systems

Project Goal

Planning of the automated public transport service, including business area and route planning and stops. Integration into the public transport tariff structure, including tariff simulations and a permanent financing model. Investigation of the legal framework for the approval of the operation and the harmonization of existing legal situations. Integration of ridepooling into the public transport mobility platform, including open interfaces and a data communication model. Creation of a new digital offer for persons with mobility impairments.  Connection of line-operated automated vehicles to existing traffic engineering infrastructure (traffic signals, digital public transport acceleration). Authorization and operation (vehicles, depot, and technical supervision) of 3 to 5 automated vehicles in ridepooling. Authorization and operation of scheduled service of one solo bus and two automated bus platoons. Include the needs of various user groups, especially the walking, hearing, and visually impaired, and compare user acceptance with existing systems. Determine environmental/emission and efficiency impacts using agent-based simulation and AI methods. Cross-project overall evaluation and comparison of other automated public transport service funding projects, especially regarding user acceptance, accessibility, environmental impacts, and traffic safety. 

Tasks of the Chair

  1. Investigation and evaluation of possible stop concepts for autonomous vehicles at TUM's test field for automated and connected driving, incl. testing of boarding and alighting processes with all vehicles (ODM vehicles, solo bus, and bus platoon).
  2. Development of an agent-based traffic demand simulation in MATSim for the representation of the overall Munich traffic system as well as the creation of microscopic traffic simulations which, on the one hand, realistically represent the automated vehicles defined and tested in MINGA with their characteristics and, on the other hand, realistically represent the comparison case of non-automated vehicles.
  3. Calibrating traffic simulations using data generated in real-world operations and running defined simulation scenarios. Evaluate the effects of high-scale procedures to determine impacts on the overall transportation system, climate, and environmental impacts.
  4. Definition of key performance indicators (KPIs) in an overall evaluation approach to determine the degree of achievement of the technical, societal-social, and regulatory outcomes.
  5. Development and implementation of an integrated survey concept (in the vehicles and online) of people with and without mobility impairments, for example, about the perception of safety and to define requirements and issues in the context of road safety.

Automated Driving, Real Operation, Simulation and Scaling of Autonomous Vehicles in Urban and Suburban Areas


Federal Ministry for Digital and Transport




·       Landeshauptstadt München mit Mobilitätsreferat (Konsortialführer) und Baureferat

·       Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Konstruktionstechnik und Technisches Design

·       Stadtwerke München GmbH / Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft mbH

·       Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund GmbH

·       MAN Truck & Bus SE

·       ioki GmbH

·       Ebusco Deutschland GmbH

·       Benz + Walter GmbH

·       Fryce GmbH

·       Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technik der Informationsverarbeitung (ITIV)

·       FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik


Associated partners:

·       Pfennigparade

·       VDV

·       Yunex Traffic

·       Landkreis München

Duration March 2023 - December 2025
Contact Roman Engelhardt, Johannes Müller, Isabella Waldorf, Elena Natterer