A second life application of vehicle batteries from EVs and HEVs is the alternative to remanufacturing or recycling of used lithium-ion battery packs. The main requirement for second life is significant capacity and performance of battery cells that is left for alternative lower-performance uses. There are different reasons for an increasing supply of used functioning batteries. One reason is, that batteries lack in fulfilling the vehicle requirements after underrunning a defined capacity and performance. Another major driver will be the improved battery technology during a vehicle lifetime. Customers want to participate on improvements and replace their existing battery systems after a few years through batteries with more capacity to gain greater driving range.


The aim is to investigate the battery life cycle as well as the feasibility of a second life or remanufacturing of an electric vehicle lithium-ion battery.

Key topics

  • Battery design for electric vehicles and stationary applications
  • Battery life cycle
  • Remanufacturing, recycling and second life processes
  • Battery aging and lithium-ion lifetime prediction
  • Battery depreciation and battery price trends